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Technical Note

Experimental investigation of behaviour of concrete mixed and cured with Nembe seawater

Uchechi G. Eziefula1Uchenna C. Egbufor2Chioma L. Udoha2

1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Umuagwo, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma, Nigeria



Compressive strength;




Setting time;


Freshwater is conventionally used to produce concrete, but freshwater scarcity has become a significant challenge worldwide. The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the workability and strength of Portland cement concrete mixed and cured with Nembe seawater. The initial and final setting times and slump of fresh concrete mixed with freshwater and seawater were determined. Four sets of concrete specimens were produced for the compressive strength tests: concrete cast and cured with freshwater, cast with freshwater and cured with seawater, cast with seawater and cured with freshwater, and cast and cured with seawater. The use of seawater for mixing concrete decreased the initial setting time of the cement paste and the slump of concrete by approximately 36% and 54%, respectively. Concrete specimens mixed with seawater and cured with freshwater exhibited the highest compressive strengths at the 60th and 90th days of curing. Although the concrete mixed with seawater yielded slightly higher compressive strengths than concrete mixed with freshwater, the difference between using freshwater and seawater as mixing and curing water in terms of compressive strength was minimal.

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01/01/2024 Best Paper Award: The winners of 2023 Best Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Author Awards section.

01/01/2024 Most Cited Paper Award: The winners of 2023 Most Cited Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Author Awards section.

01/01/2024 Reviewer Awards: The winners of 2023 reviewer awards of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Reviewer Awards section.

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

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2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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