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Research Article

Prediction of chloride ingress for palm kernel shell concrete

Samson Olalekan Odeyemi1, Omolola Titilayo Odeyemi2, Adewale George Adeniyi3, Zainab Tolu Giwa1, Ademola Kamorudeen Salami1, Adeyemi Adesina4

1Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University Malete, Nigeria

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria

3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Windsor, Canada



Palm Kernel Shell;

 Chloride ingress; 


 Coarse aggregate;



Steel reinforcement corrosion emanating from ingress of chloride into concrete is the key reason for weakening of concrete structures globally. Infiltration of chloride into concrete happens by absorption and diffusion. On the other hand, reinforced concrete containing supplementary materials is more susceptible to corrosion exposure due to its high permeability. In this paper, two concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) were applied on concrete containing palm kernel shell as full replacement to granite. Concrete cube specimens of Grade 20 were cast into 150 mm by 150 mm by 150 mm moulds, and their workability were determined by compacting factor and slump tests. The hardened specimens were soaked in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution of 3% and 6% concentration. Spray, Absorption and Compressive strength tests were conducted at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Equations were generated by means of the data gotten from the laboratory tests to forecast the chloride penetration depth into the palm kernel shell concrete under the conditions considered in this work. The models generated revealed that absorption affected chloride ingress into the concrete significantly at 6% NaCl concentration. The models also reveal that the cover to reinforcements in Palm Kernel Shell Concrete subjected to chloride attack should be more than what is presently endorsed for reinforced concrete structures.

© 2021 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

21/10/2023 Journal Submission System Upgrade Completed: We're delighted to announce that our Journal Submission and Tracking System has undergone a significant upgrade, aimed at enhancing your experience. We apologize for the delay, and any inconvenience it may have caused. Here are the key enhancements from a user perspective:

Improvements are designed to make your interaction with our journal smoother and more efficient. Please take the upgraded system for a spin and share your thoughts with us. If you encounter any issues or have questions, please don't hesitate to reach out to our support team.

27/12/2022 Reviewer AwardsThe winners of 2022 reviewer awards of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Reviewer Awards section. 

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

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2022 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2022 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Nitin Kumar, Michele Barbato, Erika L. Rengifo-López and Fabio Matta entitled as “Capabilities and limitations of existing finite element simplified micro-modeling techniques for unreinforced masonry” is awarded the 

2022 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Aykut Elmas, Güliz Akyüz, Ayhan Bergal, Müberra Andaç and Ömer Andaç entitled as “Mathematical modelling of drug release" is awarded the


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